Citicoline (choline cytidine diphosphate, or CDP-choline) is a nucleotide consisting of choline, cytosine, ribose and pyrophosphate that is present in every cell of the human body. Citicoline is a source of choline and is also involved as an essential intermediate in the synthesis of the structural phospholipids of cell membranes (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine). CDP-choline is mainly used in the treatment of disorders of a cerebrovascular nature. It is also used for the treatment of cognitive impairment, especially when the clinical picture is predominantly one of cerebrovascular disease. Because of its effects on adrenergic and dopaminergic activity of the central nervous system, CDP-choline has also been used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Citicoline is a relatively old compound, developed and produced in Japan, originally introduced for the treatment of acute cerebrovascular disorders, and also for the treatment of chronic cerebrovascular disorders. It was also occasionally prescribed as an adjuvant to L-Dopa treatment in Parkinson's patients, and in the treatment of primary degenerative dementia or mild forms of primary cognitive impairment.
Fioravanti M, Yanagi M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000269. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD000269.pub3.
It is a water-soluble vitamin that is absorbed by passive diffusion, is not stored in the body and is eliminated in the urine. In the recommended daily amount, niacin contributes to the normal functioning of the nervous system, to normal psychological function, to normal energy metabolism, to the maintenance of normal skin and mucous membranes, and helps to reduce tiredness and fatigue.
It is a water-soluble vitamin and is an essential nutrient, i.e. it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from external sources such as food. At the recommended daily dose, it contributes to normal intellectual performance, to the synthesis and normal metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamin D and some neurotransmitters, to normal energy metabolism, and helps to reduce tiredness and fatigue.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
2 capsules/day with meals.
Treatment recommended for a minimum of 3 months.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist about the health benefits of adequate intake of these nutrients in the daily diet.
- Citicoline is generally well tolerated and there are no known drug interactions.
- Not intended for consumption by children.
- In case of pregnancy or breastfeeding, consult your doctor.
- It should not be administered to persons allergic to any of its components.
- Do not exceed the recommended daily dose.
- Food supplements should not be used as a substitute for a balanced diet.
Store in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight.
Consult your doctor or pharmacist before incorporating a food supplement into your regular diet.
- Bottle of 100 vegetable capsules.
- Citicoline 91%, anti-caking agent E460i 5% (microcrystalline cellulose), nicotinamide (niacin) 3%, calcium D-pantothenate (pantothenic acid) 1%, anti-caking agent E551 0.01% (silicon dioxide).
- Hypromellose (E464), E170.
The scientists of the EuroEspes Group led by Dr. Ramón Cacabelos have extensive experience in the study of the properties of citicoline on brain function. At EuroEspes, numerous scientific studies and clinical trials have been conducted on the effects of citicoline on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Vascular Dementia, and on aging in general.
- Study of the influence of CDP-choline on cerebral bioelectrical activity and neurovascular hemodynamics in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia (1992-1993).
- Study of the effects of CDP-choline on neuroimmune function in patients with senile dementia (1993).
- Study of the effect of CDP-choline on cerebral beta-amyloid protein deposits in the animal model of Alzheimer's disease AD-EE-beta/A4. Neuroimmuno-regulatory and anti-amyloidogenic activity of CDP-choline (Somazine) (1994-1998).
- Study of the effects of two doses of CDP-choline (1000, 1500 mg/day) on cognitive function, cerebral bioelectrical activity and cerebral hemodynamics in oral and chronic administration (84 days) in patients with medium/moderate Alzheimer's disease. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study (1996-1997).
- Effects of CDP-choline on memory and motor performance deficits induced by bromazepam treatment in rats (1996).
- Study of the neuroprotective and neuronal cytoskeleton-stabilizing properties of CDP-choline in the brain of injured rats. Memory and behavioral studies in the same animals (1996).
- Effects of CDP-choline on cognitive performance in subjects/patients with memory impairment and without senile dementia (1996).
- Study of the effect of citicoline on glia and neuronal cultures (1997).
- Study of the effects of CDP-choline on apoptosis in a model of combined neurodegeneration induced by beta-amyloid and hypoperfusion (1998).